To determine whether osteosarcopenia is associated with a greater likelihood of recurrent fractures, as well as type of fracture, than osteopenia/osteoporosis or sarcopenia alone.
Anthropometry (height/weight; scales and stadiometer), body composition (bone mineral density [BMD] and appendicular lean mass; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), grip strength (hydraulic dynamometer), and gait speed (4 m) were measured in an outpatient clinic. WHO definition for osteopenia/osteoporosis (BMD T-score below −1 SDs) while sarcopenia was defined by SDOC or EWGSOP2. Number and location of fractures within the past 5 years were self-reported and verified by medical records (unverified fractures excluded). Univariable and multivariable regressions were used to examine the association between the exposure and outcome while adjusting for confounders.
481 community-dwelling older adults (median age: 78, IQR: 72, 83; 75.9% women) were included. Prevalence of osteosarcopenia depended on the definition (SDOC: 179 (37.2%); EWGSOP2: 123 (25.6%)). In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, alcohol, smoking, BMI, lowest BMD T-score, physical activity, and comorbidities, the likelihood of recurrent fractures (≥ 2 vs 0–1) was significantly higher in those with osteosarcopenia versus osteopenia/osteoporosis irrespective of the definition (SDOC: odds ratio [OR]: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.59, p = 0.037; EWGSOP2: OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.12, 3.01, p = 0.016]. Associations with sarcopenia alone (SDOC: 10; EWGSOP2: 7) were not possible due to the extremely low prevalence of this condition in those with normal BMD.
Our data suggest osteosarcopenia is associated with a greater likelihood of recurrent fractures versus osteopenia/osteoporosis alone. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship with sarcopenia alone.